Rwanda’s mining sector is entirely made up of artisanal and small-scale operations, though with varying degrees of mechanization and professionalization. There are small deposits of gold, but the main minerals extracted are the 3Ts – tin, tungsten, and tantalum. These mines are dotted throughout Rwanda’s hilly terrain which presents unique challenges to extraction, processing and the disposal of tailings. The vast majority, if not all, mines are licensed and formalized, and many are organized into cooperative structures. This provides miners with more legitimacy and greater access to support services.